Cipy

Glossary

A vocabulary of definitions or meanings of unique words and phrases used in this website.

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There are currently 245 names in this directory
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1 C
One component.

2 C
Two components.

3 C
Three components.

A

Abrasion
Wearing, grinding or rubbing away by friction.

Abrasion resistance
Resistance to a form of wear in which a gradual removal of a flooring surface is caused by the frictional action of relatively fine particles. Abrasion resistance generally depends on the toughness of the product or wear-layer, thickness of wear-layer and existence of surface coatings.

Abrasive blast cleaning
Preparation of substrate to achieve the desired surface profile by means of impingement of kinetic energy streams of abrasives. Grit, sand, copper slag or wet blasting is employed.

Absorption
The state of one substance being taken up by another; for example a sponge absorbs water.

Accelerator
An ingredient added to a resin-hardening mixture to speed up the reaction. Also see Curing Agent.

ACI
American Concrete Institute - a trade organization of the concrete industry.

Acid etch
Refers to the use of a mixture of muriatic acid and water on concrete either to neutralize the surface, if it shows signs of alkali or to open the surface to allow a good bond with floor coatings. This can actually cause problems in bonding due to acid residue.

Additive
A chemical added to the system to enhance the desired properties

Adhesion
The state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which may consist of valence forces or interlocking action, or both.

Adhesion promoter
Materials used to improve a coating or adhesive’s ability to withstand mechanical separation from a substrate; to improve a system’s adhesive strength.

Adhesive
A substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment.

Adhesive strength
The sum of the forces of attachment between the coating film and the substrate.

Adsorption
The adhesion in an extremely thin layer, of the molecules of gases of dissolved substances or liquids, to the surface of solid bodies with which they are in contact.

Ageing
The irreversible in the dried coating film that occurs with the passage of time.

Aggregate
A hard fragmented material used with an epoxy binder as flooring or surfacing medium. A coarse filler.

Air assisted spray
Spraying of coating by normal spray gun with the forced air from the compressor.

Air drying
The drying of the coating film by exposure to air at normal temperature

Air less spray
Spraying of coating by forcing it hydraulically through an orifice at high pressure.

Air-entrained concrete
Concrete containing tiny air bubbles formed by adding soap-like resinous or fatty materials to the cement or to the concrete when mixed. Bubbles give the water in the concrete enough room to expand as it freezes.

Alkalinity
A measurement of alkaline rated above 7 on the pH scale.

Amide
A curing agent used with epoxy resins, containing the –(C=0)–NH2 group in its molecular formula. Most amides are semi-solids or solids at room temperature and they are practically neutral. They are derived from a hydrogen replacement reaction between an organic acid and ammonia (NH3).

Amine
A curing agent used with epoxy resins that is any of a class of ammonia derivatives.

ANSI
American National Standard Institute.

Anti skinning agent
A chemical added in small quantities in the liquid paint to prevent the formation of skin at the top of the liquid during storage.

Antifouling paint
A coating applied to the bottom of the ships to prevent the growth of barnacles or other marine organisms.

Antioxidant
A compound added to other substances to retard oxidation.

Aqueous
Containing water; usually describes a water solution of something.

Artificial weathering
Lab tests designed to stimulate the effects of the destructive action of natural out door weather on coated film.

ASTM
American Society for Testing Materials.

B

Baking coating
A coating that requires higher temperature (>650C) for getting cured to achieve optimum properties

Barrier coating
The coating that insulates between the substrate and the electrolyte.

Bernard cells
A surface phenomenon occurring during the drying of the film characterized by the formation of hexagon shaped cells.

Binder
An adhesive material used to hold together fillers such as sand, aggregate and other ingredients.

Biocide
A chemical agent used to kill organisms responsible for microbiological degradation.

Bisphenol-A
A standard resin intermediate along with epichlorohydrin, used in the production of epoxy resins. A condensation product formed by the reaction of two (bis) molecules of phenol with acetone (A).

Bittiness
The presence of flocculated or agglomerate materials in the dried film.

Bleeding
The diffusion of color through a coating from the substrate; discoloration arising from such diffusion.

Blister
An elevation on a surface; its boundaries may be indefinitely outlined and it may burst and become flattened. It may be caused by insufficient adhesive; inadequate curing time, temperature or pressure; or trapped air, water or solvent vapor.

Blocking
The sticking of a coated surface to an adjacent surface when the two surfaces are in contact for an extended period of time.

Blushing
Appearance of milky or oily surface in the dried film when applied in high humid or extremely low temp conditions.

Bond
The union of materials by adhesives; to unite materials by means of an adhesive.

Bond strength
The stress (tensile load divided by the area of bond) required to rupture a bond formed by an adhesive. It is tested by pull-off method, as per ASTM D4541.

Breaking load
The required load that causes fracture in a tension, compression, flexure or torsion test.

Breaking strength
The term for flexural strength.

Brookfield viscometer
An instrument used to measure the viscosity or resistance to flow of materials under standard conditions of temperature. This commonly used instrument consists of a scale that measures the drag on various size spindles that rotate at a set speed.

Bubbling
The appearance of temporary or permanent bubbles of air or solvent vapour in the applied film.

C

CAS No
Chemical Abstracts Service number given to every chemical known to the world.

Catalyst
A substance used to change the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing permanent change in composition.

Caulking compound
A resilient material used for sealing moving joints. Also known as sealants.

Centipoise
1/100th of a poise (dyne-sec/cm²); a viscosity measurement unit.

Chalking
Appearance of friable or whitish powder on the dried film on continuous exposure to UV

Checking resistance
The ability of a coating to resist slight breaks in the film that do not penetrate into the previously applied coating or to the substrate.

Chip resistance
The resistance of the dried film to localized damages caused by stones, grits or chips.

Cissing
The formation of small areas of the wet film of a coating, leaving gaps in the film.

Clarity
Degree of clearness.

Coalescents
Additives used to obtain/promote good film formation.

COB
Clear over base coat. COB coatings are used in OEM and auto finishes. A clear coat is given over a pigmented coating to enhance gloss and scratch resistance.

Cohesion
The forces that bind together all particles coherently of a coating or sealant. Cohesion should not be confused with adhesion.

Cold curing
The curing of coating at room temperature without the aid of heat.

Compatibility
The ability of a material to become or remain homogenous before, during or after cure. NOTE: Serious incompatibility is exemplified by separation of components, loss of clarity, “sweating out,” loss of adhesion, etc.

Compressive strength
The maximum stress a material can sustain under crush loading. It is calculated by dividing the maximum load by the original cross-sectional area of a specimen.

Conductive flooring
A floor designed to carry off built-up static electricity and reduce the risk of explosion in potentially explosive environments.

Control or contraction joints
Joints in concrete which are grooved, formed or sawed into slabs so cracking will occur in these joints rather than in a random manner. They extend to 1/4 the depth of the concrete thickness. When the concrete is completely cured and dry, they may be filled with a cementitious or polymeric materials.

Corrosion
A process by which the metal is wearing away by chemical or electrochemical influences.

Corrosion inhibitors
Compounds used to prevent the oxidation of metal.

Cove
A cove is used to form a junction between the wall course and the floor.

CPVC
The critical pigment volume concentration level at which the binder quantity is just sufficient to form a non-porous film.

Crack bridging ability
The ability of the coating to expand enough to cover up the cracks occurred on the substrate beneath.

Cracking
The splitting of the dried film on ageing, due to insufficient elongation properties.

Crater
Small, shallow, crater-like surface imperfections.

Creep
The dimensional change or deformation that occurs over a period of time when a material is subjected to constant stress at a constant temperature; also called cold flow.

Cross-cut test
A test conducted to determine the adhesion of the coating with the substrate using cross-cut adhesion tester.

Cross-link
Tying together large molecules and changing the physical properties of the material.

Cure
The changing of physical properties of a material by chemical reaction—usually to a harder or more permanent form. Sometimes cure is synonymous with set.

Cure cycle
The schedule of time periods under specified conditions to which a reacting composition is subjected in order to reach a specified property level.

Cure temperature
The temperature to which a system is subjected in order to cure it. Note that the temperature attained by the system in the process of curing may differ from the temperature of the atmosphere surrounding the system.

Cure time
The period of time during which a system may be subjected to heat or pressure to cure. In two-component systems, it is the time lapse between the addition of the curing agent (hardener) to the resin, and completed polymerization.

Curing agent (hardener)
A catalytic or reactive agent used to promote, enhance or control the curing reaction and aid in property development. The addition of a curing agent to an epoxy resin causes polymerization.

D

Defoamer
A surface-active agent used to reduce or eliminate foam. It stops the foam and breaks the bubble once it has been formed.

Degreasing
The removal of mineral oils, greases and similar contaminants from the substrate by means of solvents.

Degree of cure
The percentage of the optimum level of a specified property attained by a reacting composition under given cure conditions.

Delamination
The separation of layers in a laminate because of failure of the adhesive, either in the adhesive itself or at the interface between the adhesive and the adherend, or because of cohesive failure of the adherend.

Density
The ratio of a substance’s mass to its volume at a given temperature and pressure.

Deterioration (degradation)
A permanent change in the physical and/or chemical properties of a material evidenced by impairment of these properties.

Dielectric strength
The max value of the electrical stress that a coating of specified thickness will withstand without being subject to an electrical breakdown.

Diluent
A reactive or non-reactive modifier used to reduce the viscosity and extend the material to which it is added.

Discoloration
Any change from an initial color possessed by a material, either due to environmental or internal conditions. A lack of uniformity in color where color should be uniform over the whole area of a material.

Dispersion
A heterogeneous system in which a finely divided material is distributed in another material.

Dry film thickness (DFT)
The thickness of the dried film expressed in microns after full cure.

Dry spray
The appearance of rough, bitty film from sprayed coating film.

E

Efflorescence
A condition that occurs when soluble salts in dry coating or the substrate migrates to the surface due to movement of water through film.

Elasticity
The property of a material by which it tends to recover its original size and shape after deformation.

Elastomer
A macromolecular polymer returns to its original shape when the stress is removed.

Encapsulation
The covering of an item by a protective coating. Also called potting.

Epichlorohydrin
The basic epoxidizing resin intermediate used in the production of epoxy resins. It contains an epoxy group and is highly reactive with polyhydric phenols such as bisphenol-A.

Etching
Cleaning and roughening a surface using a chemical agent prior to coating in order to increase the adhesion.

Exotherm
The liberation of heat energy during a chemical reaction.

Expansion joint
Separations between adjoining parts of a concrete slab allowing separate movement of the parts. They are usually filled with an elastomeric type of material. Expansion joints should never be filled with a cementitious underlayment product because any movement of the separate parts may cause the underlayment to break up and be pushed out of the joint. Resilient flooring should not be installed over this type of joint as cracking and buckling may occur.

Extender
A material added to a compound to lower cost with minimal degradation of properties.

F

Failure, adhesive
The failure at the bond line between a substrate and an adhesive; when the adhesive separates entirely from the substrate.

Failure, cohesive
Failure within the adhesive under a stress, resulting in a broken bond with all adhered surfaces still covered with adhesive.

Failure, substrate
The failure of the substrate material itself upon subjecting the bonded adherend surfaces to a stress.

Fatigue
The permanent structural change that occurs in a material that has been subjected to fluctuating stress and strain.

Feather edge
The tapering of the edge of a film of dried material either by the method of application, sanding, or rubbing the dried film, resulting in a gradual progression of the film thickness from little or no material at the edge to a normal coating at the center.

Filler
A particulate solid material added to a resin-curing agent system to change properties and/or to lower cost.

Film
The thin, level application of an adhesive or coating to a surface. Thickness is not typically greater than 0.010 inch.

Fire resistance
The property of a material or assembly to withstand fire or give protection from it. Classes are I, II, III or A, B, C with Class I or A being the most fire resistant

Fire retardant
A chemical or preparation of chemicals used to reduce flammability or to retard the spread of a fire over a surface

Fish eyes
Transluscent- circular areas of substrate that are exposed through the film of a coating.

Flaking
Lifting of dried films from the substrate in flakes.

Flash off time
The time given for a coating to evaporate the low boiling solvents before baking or flocking.

Flash point
The minimum temperature of a liquid at which the vapours given off are sufficient to form a flammable structure with air.

Flatting agent
Matting agent added to coatings to reduce the gloss of the film.

Flexibility
A state of matter, usually synonymous with higher elongation or lower modulus.

Flexibilizer
An additive used to increase system flexibility.

Flexural strength
The ability of a material to withstand failure due to bending.

Flocculation
The development of loosely coherent, pigment agglomerates in the liquid paint.

Flooding and floating
The separation of one or more of the pigments from others and their concentration in streaks on the surface of the film.

Fungicide
An additive used to destroy, retard or prevent the growth of fungi and spores.

G

Galvanizing
A process whereby the pretreated steel is given a coat of zinc by immersion in the molten metal.

Gardner color scale
A system of color standards based on stable solutions of ferric chloride used in evaluation of resins, lacquers, oils and varnishes. The Gardner Scale can be correlated roughly with other color standards such as FAC, ASTM, NPA and Lovibond.

Gel
(1) A semi-solid system consisting of a network of solid aggregates in which liquid is held. (2) The initial jelly-like solid phase that develops during the formation of a resin from a liquid.

Gel coat
The first coat of laminating resin laid up against a mold. The first layer of laminating material is then laid up on this resin after it has hardened or “gelled” slightly.

Gel point (time)
The stage at which a liquid begins to gel or exhibit pseudo-elastic properties. This stage may be observed from the inflection point on a viscosity-time plot.

Glass transition temp (Tg)
The temperature below the melting point of a polymer at which the temperature dependence of volume and other thermodynamic variables show a marked change of gradient. It is the temperature (T) at which the polymer passes from the glassy state (when T is below Tg) to rubbery state( when T is above Tg)

Glazing compound
Dough like material used for window glass with frames.

Green concrete
Concrete which is fairly new and has not had a chance to completely cure and or dry.

H

Hardener (Curing Agent)
A catalytic or reactive agent used to promote, enhance or control the curing reaction and aid in property development. The addition of a curing agent to an epoxy resin causes polymerization.

Hardness
A measure of the resistance of a material to surface indentation or abrasion; a function of the stress required to produce some specified type of surface deformation. It is measured in Shore A (soft types) and Shore D (rigid types)

Haze
The cloudy or turbid appearance of an otherwise transparent specimen caused by light scattered from within the specimen or from its surfaces.

High solids
A general term used to denote the presence of a higher than average percentage of solid ingredients and thus a lower percentage of solvents.

Holidays
A coating application defect where there is complete absence of coating on random areas of substrate. This is detected by holiday detector.

Hydration
The chemical reaction between water and Portland cement, which causes the concrete to attain its ultimate compressive strength.

Hydrostatic pressure
Pressure which forces water up through a below-grade slab, generally causing installation problems due to moisture. This occurs when water table is higher than the slab. Hydrostatic pressure is caused by the weight of the water pressing down on itself.

Hygrometer
An instrument for measuring the degree of humidity or relative humidity of the atmosphere.

Hygroscopic
a. A substance that can absorb and retain moisture, or lose or throw off moisture. Wood and wood products are hygroscopic. They expand with absorption of moisture and their dimensions become smaller when moisture is lost or thrown off. b. The ability to lose or gain moisture relative to the atmospheric humidity and temperature

I

Impact resistance
The ability of the film of a coating material to withstand a sudden blow without cracking or flaking.

Inhibitor
A substance that is used to slow a chemical reaction-often to prolong shelf or storage life.

Intumescent coating
A fire retardant coating that foam up to 50 times thicker than the original substrate when subjected to high temp.

K

Knifing filler
A putty suitable for application with a knife.

L

LEED
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design®) : A green building rating system that was developed by the U.S. Green Building Council in 2000 through a consensus based process. LEED is a tool for buildings of all types and size. LEED certification offers third party validation of a project’s environmental features and verifies that the building is operating exactly the way it was designed to.

Levelling
The ability of a film to flow out free of ripples, pock marks, brush marks or other surface defects.

Linear shrinkage
The difference in linear dimensions of a specimen from the corresponding mold dimensions as a consequence of the polymerization reaction and the cure cycle used. Usually expressed in cm/cm, in/in, in/ft, etc.

M

Mar resistance
The ability of a dried film to resist visual damage caused by light abrasion, impact or pressure.

MCU
Moisture curing urethane

Melting point
The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid.

MFFT
The minimum temperature at which the emulsion polymer forms a continuous film.

Mildew resistance
The ability of the coating to resist mold and fungi.

Miscible
The capability of being mixed; mutually soluble.

Mixing ratio
The proportionate combining weights or volumes of resin, and hardener of a two component system.

Modifier
Any material that when added to a resin/curing agent combination causes a change in properties.

Modulus of elasticity
The ratio of unit stress to unit strain.

Mud cracking
An irregular broken network of cracks in the dried film. Normally associated with zinc silicate primers.

N

Newtonian flow
The flow characteristic of a liquid that shows constant resistance to flow as stirring is continued at constant or varying rates of shear.

Non-volatile content
The weight of the ingredients in the coating which does not evaporate while (solids by weight) curing.

O

OEM coating
The coating which is applied on the Original Equipments produced by the Manufacturer

Opacity
The degree of obstruction to the transmission of visible light.

Orange peel
An uneven surface of a material somewhat resembling an orange peel.

Organosol
A finely divided or colloidal dispersion of a resin in a plasticizer, with solvents or other materials.

Oxidation
The process of combining with oxygen; the changes resulting from the affects of air or oxygen, such as the corrosion of metal surfaces.

P

p.s.i.
Pounds per square inch; a unit of measure of pressure.

Peak exotherm
The maximum internal temperature reached by a reacting composition.

Peel resistance
A measure of bond strength. The torque required in order to separate an adhesive and an adherend, as done in the climbing drum peel test (ASTM D-1781).

Peel strength
The measure of the strength of an adhesive bond. It is the average load per unit width of bond line required to part bonded materials where the angle of separation is 180 degrees and the separation rate is 6 in/min. (ASTM D-903).

Peeling
The loosening of a coating or layer from a base material.

Pencil hardness
A test for surface hardness using a numbered set of increasing hardness lead pencils. Surface hardness is designated by the first numbered pencil that will scratch the surface, starting with the softest pencil.

Penetration
The entering of one material into another material, measured by the depth of penetration.

pH
A simplified system of measuring acidity or alkalinity irrespective of the acid or alkali involved.

Pigment
A fine, solid, typically inorganic particle used in the preparation of colored products. It is substantially insoluble in the vehicle versus a dye, which is soluble.

Pigment volume concentration
The concentration of pigments and extenders by volume in a liquid paint.

Pin holes
Small pore-like flaws in a dried film which appear like pin pricks.

Pitting
The formation of small cavities in a metal substrate due to corrosion.

Plasticity
The tendency of a material to remain deformed after reduction of the deforming stress, to a value equal to or less than its yield strength.

Plasticizer
An additive used to improve flexibility or to facilitate compounding.

Plastisol
A colloidal dispersion (suspension) of a resin in a plasticizer without a solvent.

Poise
The Bureau of Standards unit for measuring viscosity.

Polyester
A resin composed of polymeric esters in which the recurring ester groups are an integral part of the main polymer chain. Unsaturated polyesters contain carbon double bonds that permit cross-linking and thus conversion of the resin to a substantially infusible and insoluble product.

Polymer
A compound formed by the reaction of simple molecules having functional groups that permit their combination to proceed to high molecular weights under suitable conditions. Polymers may be formed by polymerization or polycondensation. When two or more monomers are involved, the product is called a copolymer.

Polymerization
A chemical reaction in which the molecules of a monomer are linked to form large molecules whose molecular weight is a multiple of that of the original substance. When two or more monomers are involved, the process is called copolymerization.

Polyol
The reactive component in PU having OH groups.

Popping
The formation of small eruptions in dried film due to entrapment of low boiling solvents.

Post cure
The additional operations to which a cured composition is subjected to enhance one or more properties.

Pot Life
The period of time during which a resin, after being mixed with the curing agent, can be used.

Potting
The covering of an item (such as coils in motors and generators) by a protective casting. Also called encapsulation.

Prepolymer
A low polymeric intermediate between that of the monomer and the final polymer or resin.

Promoter
See Accelerator.

R

Reactive diluent
Materials used to decrease viscosity. Becomes an integral part of the final coating/adhesive by chemical reaction with itself or with other components of the formulation.

Relative humidity
Ratio of the amount of water vapor present in the air to that which the air would hold at saturation at the same temperature. It is usually considered on the basis of the weight of the vapor, but for accuracy should be considered on the basis of vapor pressures.

Resilience
Resilience is a property involving the elastic energy in a material, which causes it to regain its original shape after having been indented by a high pressure load. Resilience, in its broadest sense, consists of properties beyond recovery from indentation.

Resiliency
The ability of material to resume it’s former shape after mechanical deformation.

S

Sagging
A downward movement of a coating between application and curing, resulting in a characteristic appearance of a draped curtain.

Sealer
Any finishing material that is applied with the primary purpose of stopping the absorption of succeeding coats.

Shear strength
The maximum shear stress that can be sustained by a material before rupture. The ultimate strength of a material subjected to shear loading, as determined in a torsion test.

Shelf life
The period of time which the manufacturer guarantees the unopened material will be useable.

Shrinkage
The decrease in volume or contraction of a material by the escape of any volatile substance, or by a chemical or physical change in the material.

Slump
A measure of the consistency of concrete in inches. The distance the concrete slumps from its original 12” molded form.

Slump test
A conical mold is filled in three layers with the concrete. After each layer, the concrete is puddled with 25 strokes of a rod. Concrete is evened off at the top of the mold and the mold removed. The slump is the space between a rod laid across the top of the mold and the molded concrete. ASTM C 143.

Solids
The dry ingredients remaining after evaporation of volatile solvents or water.

Solubility
The property of a substance to dissolve in another and form a solution.

Solvent
In a solution, the substance that dissolves another. A material used for thinning down a fluid or for cleaning purposes.

Specific gravity
The ratio of the weight of any volume of a mass or substance to the weight of an equal volume of water at a given temperature.

SS
Formulated quartz aggregates

Stability
The ability of a substance to remain unchanged, constant. The ability to restore to original condition after being disturbed by some force.

Staining
Discoloration caused by a foreign matter that chemically affects the base material.

Storage life
The time period during which a packaged material can be stored under specified temperature conditions and remain suitable for use. Also called shelf life.

Strain
The change per unit length in a linear dimension of a specimen, usually expressed in percent (%). In most mechanical tests, strain is based on the original length of the specimen.

Stress
An applied force or pressure such as tension or shear that is exerted on a body to produce a resultant strain on the material. The ability of the material to withstand a stress depends on the strength of its cohesive force or molecular resistance.

Surface active agent (surfactant)
A wide variety of materials used to alter surface phenomena. Wetting agents reduce surface tension and improve wetting and spreading; dispersants aid in the dispersion of pigments; defoamers inhibit foam formation; and emulsifiers cause or improve emulsion formation.

Surface profile
The micro roughness of the surface after proper surface preparation, generally expressed as the average height of the major peaks relative to the major valleys.

Surface tension
The property of a liquid that causes the surface to pull into the smallest area for a maximum volume, hence, drops are spherical.

Surfactant
See Surface Active Agents.

T

Taber abrasor
An instrument used to test the abrasion resistance of a material.

Tack
Slight stickiness of the surface of the film when it is pressed with finger.

Tack-free time
The period from the time of application to the time when a surface no longer imparts tack (stickiness).

Tear resistance
The measure of the ability of a material to resist tearing or being pulled apart or lacerated upon when being subjected to a tearing force.

Tensile strength
The pulling force necessary to break a specimen divided by the cross sectional area. The ultimate strength of a material subjected to tensile loading. Units are given as MPa ( N/mm2).

Terrazzo
A type of mosaic flooring made by embedding small pieces of marble, granite, glass or onyx in freshly placed mortar. The surface is usually hardened, ground, and polished.

Thermal conductivity
The ability of a material to conduct heat; the physical constant for quantity of heat that passes through a unit of volume of a substance in a unit of time when the difference in temperature of two opposite faces is 1°.

Thermal expansion (Coefficient of Linear)
The amount of change in the length of a specimen per unit length, for a unit change in specimen temperature. Usually expressed as in/in/°F or in/in/°C.

Thermoplastic
A material which when heated, softens, melts or becomes more pliable, and when cooled, regains its former rigidity.

Thermoset
A material which, when cured by application of heat or chemical means, changes into a substantially infusible and insoluble product.

Thixotrope
An additive used in a liquid to change Newtonian Flow to thixotropic flow.

Thixotropic flow
The flow characteristic of a liquid that shows decreasing resistance to flow as stirring is continued, both at a constant rate of shear and at an increasing rate of shear. The resistance to flow is time dependent.

Tint
A color produced by the mixture of a small amount of colored pigment or tinting paste with a predominant amount of white base material. The tint of a color is much lighter and much less saturated than the color itself.

Touch dry
The state of drying when slight pressure is applied by a finger does not leave an imprint.

Toxicity
The degree of harmfulness or poisonous to humans of any substance.

Translucent
The ability of a material to allow the passage of some light to pass through itself.

U

Underlayment
A material placed under resilient flooring to provide a suitable installation surface.

V

Vapour barrier
a) A material, such as foil, plastic film or specially coated paper, with a high resistance to vapor movement, used to control condensation or prevent migration of moisture. b) Any material used to stop the migration of vapor through walls, floors or ceilings.

Vehicle
The liquid portion of an adhesive or coating. Anything that is dissolved in the liquid portion is a part of the vehicle.

Viscosimeter
An instrument used to measure the viscosity or resistance to flow of materials under standard conditions of temperature. The Brookfield Viscosimeter, a commonly used instrument to measure viscosity, consists of a scale that measures the drag on various size spindles that rotate at a set speed.

Viscosity
The property of resistance of flow exhibited within the body of a material. It can be expressed as the ratio between applied shearing stress and resulting rate of strain in shear. It is expressed in poise (dyne-sec/cm²).

W

Water absorption
The ability of a material to take up and retain water.

Water spotting
The spotty appearance in the coating film caused by drops of water.

Water vapour transmission
The steady state of water vapour movement through the coating, normally expressed in grams per sq m per day.

Water/cement ratio
Ratio by weight between the water and the cement. Only a small amount of water is needed for hydration and the rest is used to make the concrete more workable. The water/cement ratio controls the characteristics of the paste and ultimately the concrete. Allowance must be made for water in the aggregate when adding water to the concrete batch.

Wet film thickness (WFT)
Thickness of the coating film immediately after it has been applied.

Wetting
The thorough impregnation of a material by a liquid. The more viscous a fluid, and the higher its surface tension, the more difficult it is for the liquid to “wet” materials. Certain additives, such as surfactants, improve wetting properties, allowing the material to flow out more easily.

Wetting agent
A material usually added to aqueous solutions to facilitate spreading or to increase the solution’s ability to evenly wet or penetrate the surface. See Surface Active Agents.

Working life
The period of time during which a resin after mixing with a curing agent, remains workable and suitable for use.

Wrinkling
The appearance of wrinkles in the dried film, usually due to initial formation of a surface skin.

Y

Young’s modulus
The modulus of elasticity in tension or compression.